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A Toddler Chewed Lead Paint Off His Toys. This Is What Happened To His Brain.

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Description

Sarah portrayed by Jen Drake and Patient JP portrayed by her son.
This patient presented to a hospital in the Illinois Medical District, 2008.

Peer Review: Dr. J Patel and Dr. Nikhil Parelkar
Production Assistant: Bradley Williams

Music by Lifeformed ► https://lifeformed.bandcamp.com
Medicine ► https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL26HeTCO57qcMQB6CrU6QRzEi9tt9l1FI
A Scientist Spilled 2 Drops Organic Mercury On Her Hand. This Is What Happened To Her Brain. ► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJ7M01jV058
A Toddler Played With His Cat. This Is What Happened To His Brain. ► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DuGsc6FkyTY
A Woman Drank 1 Liter Soy Sauce Colon Cleanse In 2 Hours. This Is What Happened To Her Brain. ► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QiBpKuTrFrw
A Student Ate 5 Day Old Pasta For Lunch. This Is How His Liver Shut Down. ► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ujTYLV2Qo4

Lead Metal by Hi-Res Images of Chemical Elements
Lead Metal 2 by Images-Of-Elements
Germanium by Hi-Res Images of Chemical Elements
Tin by Jurii
Saba by San Giacomo

This video is funded in its entirety by me, and any opinions presented herein are solely mine. Those appearing in this video were compensated for their time. These videos are not individual medical advice and are for general educational purposes only. I do not give medical advice over the internet, see your own physician in person for that. These cases are patients who I, or my colleagues have seen. They are de-identified and many instances have been presented in more depth in an academic setting.

References:

[0] Needleman HL et. al. What Level of Lead In Blood Is Toxic For A Child? Am J Public Health. 2004 January; 94(1): 8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449809/

[1] Lanphear BP et. al. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations less than 10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Rep. 2000 Nov-Dec; 115(6): 521–529. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1308622/

[2] Needleman HL, et. al. The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. An 11-year follow-up report. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jan 11;322(2):83–88. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2294437

[3] Alexander FW et. al. Deaths from Acute Lead Poisoning. Arch Dis Child. 1972 Jun; 47(253): 446–448. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1648128/

[4] Kim Y et. al. Iron deficiency increases blood concentrations of neurotoxic metals in children. Korean J Pediatr. 2014 Aug; 57(8): 345–350. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155178/

[5] Berridge MJ. Smooth muscle cell calcium activation mechanisms. J Physiol. 2008 Nov 1;586(21):5047-61. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18787034

[6] Hanna-Attisha M, et. al. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated With the Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and Public Health Response. Am J Public Health. 2016 Feb;106(2):283-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691115

[7] Bellinger DC. Lead Contamination in Flint--An Abject Failure to Protect Public Health. N Engl J Med 2016; 374(12):1101-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863114

[8] Rogan WJ. et. al. The effect of chelation therapy with succimer on neuropsychological development in children exposed to lead. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1421-1426. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11346806

[9] Kim Y. Iron deficiency increases blood concentrations of neurotoxic metals in children. Korean J Pediatr. 2014 Aug; 57(8): 345–350. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155178/

[10] Flora G, et. al. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2012 Jun; 5(2): 47–58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485653/

[11] Magyar JS et. Al. Reexamination of Lead(II) Coordination Preferences in Sulfur-Rich Sites: Implications for a Critical Mechanism of Lead Poisoning. J. AM. CHEM. SOC. 2005, 127, 9495-9505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15984876

[12] Hu H et. al. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Jan; 106(1): 1–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1532948/

[13] Ellis DE. et. al. A theoretical and experimental study of lead substitution in calcium hydroxyapatite. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2006 Feb 28;8(8):967-76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16482339

[14] Gourlaouen C et. al. Is an electronic shield at the molecular origin of lead poisoning? A computational modeling experiment. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 46, 553-556. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17152108

[15] Cory-Slechta DA et al. Lead-induced changes in NMDA receptor complex binding: correlations with learning accuracy and with sensitivity to learning impairments caused by MK-801 and NMDA administration. Behav Brain Res. 1997 May;85(2):161-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9105573

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